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Vegetables - Tomatoes

 

Tomatoes

Family nightshade family. Tomatoes (tomatoes) — one of the most tasty and useful vegetable cultures which is deservedly enjoying love not only of housewives, but also gardeners.

• Requirements to the soil. Sandy and loamy soils with рН = 6, with subacidic reaction are optimum, but well transfer also moderately sour.

• Requirements to humidity. The need of a tomato for water strongly fluctuates depending on a phase of its development: it is maximum at the time of germination of seeds and is minimum during blossoming. It is rather drought-resistant, from excess of moisture gets sick.

• Requirements to light. It is very photophilous, can grow under direct sunshine.

• Cultivation temperatures. The thermophilic culture, ancestors of garden tomatoes came from subtropics. Seeds sprout at the room temperature, frosts even at-1 "With can ruin a plant. For normal development and fructification of a tomato temperature of the soil in which it grows should not be lower than 20 "With, already at +15 °C development stops. At the same time, high temperatures reduce a harvest. The most fruitful tomatoes turn out at cultivation in temperature limits from 20 to 25 °C.

• Geographical restrictions at cultivation on zones and regions. Difficulty causes cultivation in northern regions with the short bezmorozny period as the vegetative period at tomatoes very long { on average 120-130 days). Since the latitude of Non-Black Earth Region tomatoes can be grown up only in the rassadny way, in more northern regions it is better to cultivate tomatoes in winter greenhouses without jumping to the open ground, having given preference to special hothouse grades.

• Grades. There are several tens of thousands of grades and hybrids of tomatoes which in the majority accurately and are strictly zoned. Always specify at acquisition of seeds for what of regions this grade is intended. Sometimes it is easy to guess division into districts of grades of tomatoes by the name. Usually grades divide into several groups depending on the building, heights of a bush and its branching and also depending on appointment. So, in structure allocate standard (with dense strong stalks), not standard (with the thin stalks polegayushchy during fructification) and kartofelevidny (the bush and leaves on it in appearance remind those at potatoes).

On height and branching allocate determinant grades (undersized and слабоветвящиеся, the forming from 2 to 7 brushes), superdeterminant (undersized, 2 — 3 brushes) and semi-determinant (tall, 8 — 10 brushes) and indeterminant-ny (not just high, and with unlimited growth). To destination all tomatoes are divided into dessert and sousny (the fact that their seeds freely float in fruit slime is characteristic of the last) or, on other classification, into pickling grades, grades for conservation and salads, salad grades. Sometimes as special group allocate hothouse grades that is expedient and in terms of their cultivation in regions with improper climatic conditions where with cultivation of tomatoes in the open ground there are difficulties. Besides, all grades differ on maturing terms on early, mid-season, srednepozdny and late-ripening, distinguish from them also superearly slightly less often.

 

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